Volume 19, Issue 1 (4-2020)                   TB 2020, 19(1): 32-47 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Dadfarnia S, Hadianfard H, Rahimi C, Aflakseir A. Predicting Depression Based on Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies. TB. 2020; 19 (1) :32-47
URL: http://tbj.ssu.ac.ir/article-1-2947-en.html
Shiraz University , hadianfd@shirazu.ac.ir
Full-Text [PDF 640 kb]   (1827 Downloads)     |   Abstract (HTML)  (2428 Views)
Full-Text:   (2669 Views)

Received:2019/06/05                                         Accepted:2019/09/08
Predicting Depression Based on Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies
Shekoofeh Dadfarnia (Ph.D.) 1, Habib Hadianfard (Ph.D.) 2, Changiz Rahimi (Ph.D.)3, Abdulaziz Aflakseir (Ph.D.) 4
1.Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
2.Corresponding Author: Professor, Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. Email: hadianfd@shirazu.ac.ir            Tel:0987136284641
3. Professor, Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
4.Associate Professor , Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences,  Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.
Introduction: In recent years, many studies focused on emotion regulation in conceptualization, explanation, and treatment of mental disorders. Problematic patterns of emotional reactivity and regulation are prominent factors in various mental disorders, specially internalizing disorders. The present study aimed to identify the role of emotion regulation strategies in predicting depression.
Method: This descriptive –correlational research was conducted on 650 students of Yazd University selected by cluster sampling. They completed the Beck depression inventory (BDI-II) and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies Questionnaire (CERQ.) Research data were analyzed in SPSS-22 by Pearson correlation coefficient and stepwise regression.
Results: A significant positive correlation was found between maladaptive emotion regulation strategies (self-blame, rumination, catastrophizing, other-blame) and depression. Adaptive emotion regulation strategies (acceptance, reorientation, plan-focus, perspective taking) were negatively correlated with depression. Results of Stepwise regression showed that self-blame, reorientation, catastrophizing, plan-focus, and other blame could explain 34% of depression variance significantly.
Conclusion: According to the results, emotion regulation strategies can be a significant factor in predicting depression; so, strengthening the adaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies should be considered in the development and modification of treatments for depression.
  Keywords: Depression, Emotion regulation, Cognitive Strategies, Prediction
Conflict of interest: The authors declared that there is no Conflict interest.

1-WHO. Depression and other common mental disorder [Internet]. World Health Organization; 2017 [cited 18 July 2019]. Available from https:// apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/ handle/
2-WHO. Depression [Internet]. World Health Organization; 2018 [cited 18 July 2019]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/depression
3-Weinberger A, Gbedemah M, Martinez A, Nash D, Galea S, Goodwin R. Trends in depression prevalence in the USA from 2005 to 2015: widening disparities in vulnerable groups. Psychological Medicine. 2018;48(8):1308-15.
4-Aghaei A, Abedi A, Jamali S. the Meta-analysis of effectiveness of CBT interventions for depression symptoms (Iran, 2001-2010). Clinical Psychology & Personality. 2012;6(19):69-80.
5-Saint Onge JM, Krueger PM, Rogers RG. The relationship between major depression and nonsuicide mortality for US adults: the importance of health behaviors. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences. 2014;69(4):622-32.
6-Pilkington K. Anxiety, depression and acupuncture: a review of the clinical research. Autonomic Neuroscience.2010; 157(1-2): 91-95.
7-Backenstrass M, Joest K, Rosemann T, Szecsenyi J. The care of patients with subthreshold depression in primary care: is it all that bad? A qualitative study on the views of general practitioners and patients. BMC Health Services Research.2007;7(1):190.
8- Stewart-Brown S, Evans J, Patterson J, Petersen S, Doll H, Balding J, et al. The health of students in institutes of higher education: an important and neglected public health problem? Journal of Public Health.2000;22(4):492-95.
9-Hasanzadeh-Taheri MM, Mogharab M, Akhbari S, Raeisoon M, Hasanzadeh-Taheri E. Prevalence of depression among new registered students in Birjand University of Medical               Sciences in the academic year 2009-2010. Journal of Birjand University of Medical Sciences.2011;18(2):109-16. [Persian]
10-Mohammad beigi A, Mohammad Salehi N, Ghamari F, Salehi B. Depression symptoms prevalence, general health status and its risk factors in dormitory students of Arak universities 2008. Arak Medical University Journal.2009; 12(3):116-23.[Persian]
11-Khodadadi B, Anbari K, Farahani SM. Evaluation of Anxiety, Stress and Depression among Students of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, 2016. Journal of Research in Medical and Dental Science.2018;6(1):258-94.[Persian]
12- Dadkhah B, Mohammadi M, Mozaffari N, Mohammad Nejad S, dadkhah D. The prevalence of depression in the students of Ardabil Medical University. Journal of Health and Care. 2009;11(1). [Persian]
13- Hysenbegasi A, Hass SL, Rowland CR. The impact of depression on the academic productivity of university students. Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics. 2005;8(3):145.
14-Garlow SJ, Rosenberg J, Moore JD, Haas AP, Koestner B, Hendin H, et al. Depression, desperation, and suicidal ideation in college students: results from the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention College Screening Project at Emory University. Depression and Anxiety. 2008;25(6):482-8.
15-Blanco C, Okuda M, Wright C, Hasin DS, Grant BF, Liu S-M, et al. Mental health of college students and their non–college-attending peers: results from the national epidemiologic study on alcohol and related conditions. Archives of General Psychiatry.2008;65(12):1429-37.
16-Zivin K, Eisenberg D, Gollust SE, Golberstein E. Persistence of mental health problems and needs in a college student population. Journal of Affective Disorders.2009;117(3):180-5.
17- Gross JJ, Thompson RA. Emotion regulation: Conceptual foundations. 2007.
18 - Zare H. Investigation of the relationship between cognitive emotion regulation strategies and depression, anxiety and stress in students Journal of Research in Psychological Health. 2012; 6(3):19-29.
19- Troy AS. Cognitive reappraisal ability as a protective factor: resilience to stress across time and context. PhD [dissertation].Colorado: University of Denver.2012.
20-Aldao A, Nolen-Hoeksema S, Schweizer S. Emotion-regulation strategies across psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review. 2010;30(2):217-37.
21-Hasani J. The psychometric properties of the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire (CERQ). Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2010;24:139-52. [Persian]
22-Ochsner KN, Gross JJ. The cognitive control of emotion. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 2005;9(5):242-9.
23 -Kring AM, Sloan DM. Emotion regulation and psychopathology: A transdiagnostic approach to etiology and treatment: Guilford Press.2009.
24-Garnefski N, Kraaij V, Spinhoven P. Negative life events, cognitive emotion regulation and emotional problems. Personality and Individual Differences.2001;30(8):1311-27.
25-Mohammadzadeh-Ebrahimi A, Rahimi-pordanjani T. The Moderating Role of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies in the Relationship between Stressful Events and Depression Symptoms. Journal of Research in Behavioral Sciences. 2017;15(2):213-20. [Persian]
26- Salehi A, Mazaheri Z, Aghajani Z, Jahanbazi B. The Role of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies in the Prediction of Depression. Knowledge & Research in Applied Psychology. 2015;16(1):108-17. [Persian]
27-Salehi A, Baghban I, Bahrami F, Ahamadi A. The relationship between cognitive emotion regulation strategies and emotional problems considering the personal and family factors. Journal of Family Counseling and Psychotherapy. 2011;1(1):1-19. [Persian]
28- Besharat M, Zahedi-Tajrishi K, Noorbala A. Alexithymia and emotion regulation strategies in patients withsomatization, anxiety disorders, and normal individuals: A comparative study. Contemporary Psychology. 2014;8(2):3-16. [Persian]
29-Nolen-Hoeksema S, Wisco BE, Lyubomirsky S. Rethinking rumination. Perspectives on Psychological science. 2008;3(5):400-24.
30-Garnefski N, Van Den Kommer T, Kraaij V, Teerds J, Legerstee J, Onstein E. The relationship between cognitive emotion regulation strategies and emotional problems: comparison between a clinical and a non‐clinical sample. European Journal of Personality. 2002;16(5):403-20.
31-Yousefi F. Investigating the relationship between cognitive emotion regulation strategies with depression and anxiety in the secondory students of Exeptional Talents schools. Research on Exeptional Children.6(4):871-92. [Persian]
32- Beck AT. Beyond belief: A theory of modes, personality, and psychopathology. New York, NY, US: The Guilford Press; 1996.
33-Rajabi G, Karjo KS. Psychometric properties of a Persian-language version of the beck depression inventory–second edition (BDI-II-Persian). 2013. [Persian]
34-Fata L, Birashk B, Atefvahid M, Dabson K. Meaning assignment structures/schema, emotional states and cognitive processing of emotional information: comparing two conceptual frameworks. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology. 2005;11(3):312-26.[Persian]
35- Garnefski N, Kraaij V. The cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire. European Journal of Psychological Assessment. 2007;23(3):141-9.
36- Szczygieł D, Buczny J, Bazińska R. Emotion regulation and emotional information processing: The moderating effect of emotional awareness. Personality and Individual Differences. 2012;52(3):433-7.
37- Kafetsios K, Athanasiadou M, Dimou N. Leaders' and subordinates' attachment orientations, emotion regulation capabilities and affect at work: A multilevel analysis. The Leadership Quarterly. 2014;25(3):512-27.
38-Aldao A, Nolen-Hoeksema S. Specificity of cognitive emotion regulation strategies: A transdiagnostic examination. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 2010;48(10):974-83.
39- Yeung DY, Wong CK, Lok DP. Emotion regulation mediates age differences in emotions. Aging & Mental Health. 2011;15(3):414-8.
40- Park CL, Folkman S. Meaning in the context of stress and coping. Review of General Psychology. 1997;1(2):115-44.
41-Hsieh M. The relations among emotion regulation strategies, self-concept, and adolescents' problem behaviors PhD [dissertation]. Indiana University; 2010.
42-Vanderhasselt M-A, Koster EH, Onraedt T, Bruyneel L, Goubert L, De Raedt R. Adaptive cognitive emotion regulation moderates the relationship between dysfunctional attitudes and depressive symptoms during a stressful life period: A prospective study. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. 2014;45(2):291-6.
43- Martin RC, Dahlen ER. Cognitive emotion regulation in the prediction of depression, anxiety, stress, and anger. Personality and Individual Differences. 2005;39(7):1249-60.
44- Gross JJ. The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of General Psychology. 1998;2(3):271-99.
45. Folkman S, Moskowitz JT. Stress, positive emotion, and coping. Current Directions in Psychological Science. 2000;9(4):115-8.
46- Shiota MN. Silver linings and candles in the dark: differences among positive coping strategies in predicting subjective well-being. Emotion. 2006;6(2):335.
47- Mardani S, Mehrabi H. Prediction of depression based on cognitive emotion regulation strategies and marital satisfaction in women. Knowledge & Research in Applied Psychology. 2017;18(3):65-75.[Persian]
48-Garnefski N, Teerds J, Kraaij V, Legerstee J, van Den Kommer T. Cognitive emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms: Differences between males and females. Personality and individual differences. 2004;36(2):267-76.
49-Ongen DE. Cognitive emotion regulation in the prediction of depression and submissive behavior: Gender and grade level differences in Turkish adolescents. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2010;23(9):15-16.
50-Majdara E, Makvand Hoseini S, Arab-Ghaeni M, Asbaghi E. Thr mediating role of rumintion in the relationship of social anxiety and depression with early maladaptive schemas. Journal of New Researches in Psychology. 2017;(47).
51-Tortella-Feliu M, Balle M, Sese A. Relationships between negative affectivity, emotion regulation, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in adolescents as examined through structural equation modeling. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2010;24(7):686-93.
52-Wolgast M, Lundh L-G, Viborg G. Cognitive reappraisal and acceptance: An experimental comparison of two emotion regulation strategies. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 2011;49(12):858-66.
53-Marroquín B. Interpersonal emotion regulation as a mechanism of social support in depression. Clinical Psychology Review. 2011;31(8):1276-90.
54- Berking M, Ebert D, Cuijpers P, Hofmann SG. Emotion regulation skills training enhances the efficacy of inpatient cognitive behavioral therapy for major depressive disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 2013;82(4):234-45.
55-Meiran N, Diamond GM, Toder D, Nemets B. Cognitive rigidity in unipolar depression and obsessive compulsive disorder: Examination of task switching, Stroop, working memory updating and post-conflict adaptation. Psychiatry Research. 2011;185(1-2):149-56.

This Paper Should be Cited as:
Author: Shekoofeh Dadfarnia, Habib Hadianfard , Changiz Rahimi , Abdulaziz Aflakseir. Predicting Depression Based on Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies.
Tolooebehdasht Journal.2020;19(1):32-47.[Persian]
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2019/08/5 | Accepted: 2019/09/8 | Published: 2020/04/29

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2022 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Tolooebehdasht

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb