Volume 17, Issue 1 (5-2018)                   TB 2018, 17(1): 96-104 | Back to browse issues page

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Tamaddon F, Noorbala M R, Arab D, Ghazi S. Urease Enzyme Inhibitory of Heavy Metals and Organic Solvents in Ammonia Making for Synthesis of Nifedipine Antihypertensive Drug. TB. 2018; 17 (1) :96-104
URL: http://tbj.ssu.ac.ir/article-1-2565-en.html
Associate Professor Yazd University , ftamaddon@yazd.ac.ir
Abstract:   (24 Views)
Introduction: Simultaneous development of technology is composed with environmental hazardous with heavy-metals and organic solvents and thus toxic catalysts/organic solvents must be replaced with biocatalysts and water. Urease is a hydrolase enzyme and urease-urea can be considered a safe source of toxic ammonia in synthesis of nifedipine. Nifedipine is an antihypertensive drug synthesized by four–component reaction of 2 mmol methyl acetoacetate, 2–nitro-benzaldehyde, and ammonia using catalysts and organic solvents. The object of this research is replacement of toxic ammonia with urease-urea and organic solvents with water and study of heavy-metals and organic-solvent inhibition of urease on the synthesis of nifedipine.
Methods: In this experimental work, by controlling of yield and time of nifedipine synthesis via reaction of methyl acetoacetate, 2–nitro-benzaldehyde, and urease/urea in water, optimum urease/urea concentration, temperature, and pH for maximum yield were determined. Then, the effect of heavy-metal/organic solvent inhibitors on the production of ammonia and urease-catalyzed synthesis of nifedipine have been investigated.
Results: Based on the yield of nifedipine, the activity of urease for ammonia production depends on parameters such as urease/urea amount, temperature, pH, and kind or concentration of inhibitors. The results accorded urease specificity for maximum dissociation of urea in experiment with 10 mg/mL urease, pH=7, and 70 in water, while heavy-metal ion/organic solvent inhibitory of urease showed trends of Hg2+>Ag+>Cu2+>Pb2+>Cd2+ and acetonitrile>chloroform>dichloromethane to reduce in ammonia concentration and nifedipine.
Conclusion: Urease-urea makes a biocompatible source of ammonia for synthesis of anti–hypertension drug of nifedipine, while inhibitors such as heavy metal cations especially Hg2+, organic solvents, and sulfuric acid decrease the reaction rate. Biocompatibility, use of water and no organic solvent/catalyst, high yield and selectivity are advantages of this green method in comparison to previous reported methods.
 
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2017/08/7 | Accepted: 2017/11/8 | Published: 2018/05/15

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